PLEASE SEE ATTACHMENTWeek 2: Profiling and Typologies

Serial and mass murderers not only prey on innocent victims, but also incite a considerable amount of fear and cost society millions of dollars annually. Therefore, apprehending these violent offenders is critically important for protecting citizens, reducing fear, and decreasing costs. Profiling can be an integral tool in apprehending serial and mass murderers. However, most people are unaware of how criminal profilers construct profiles of serial and mass murderers without ever interviewing them. How are profilers able to provide law enforcement agents with physical descriptions of serial and mass murderers without ever meeting the offenders? How can profilers use crime scene evidence to create a profile of the serial or mass murderer? Although the answers to these questions vary, they all rely on the notion of the criminal typology. This week, you examine the typologies in criminal profiling. In addition, you consider strengths and weaknesses of using typologies in criminal profiling.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Apply profiling typologies to serial and mass murderers
Analyze the strengths and limitations of profiling
Identify and apply typologies related to profiling serial and mass murderers

For this week’s assignments and discussion board posts.

Please use the information in Chapter 5 to develop an actual profile of the killer. What are the personal and social (demographic) characteristics of this killer? What are the personal characteristics of an organized killer? The Killers personal and social characteristics would be the killer’s profile. Please discuss these characteristics in detail. Please be sure to use the FBI’s Organzied/Disorganized Typology of Serial Killers to help you write your answer. Use the textbook and read my course announcements! Do not use the Holmes typology to develop a profile. Note: Be sure to read the transcripts of all 3 crime scenes found in Week 2 resources (scroll down to the bottom).

IN THIS DISCUSSION QUESTION THERE WILL BE A LOT OF READING TO BE DONE IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THIS ASSIGNMENT THERE ARE 4 CASE STUDIES THAT NEED TO BE READ ALONG WITH SOME OTHER READING THAT WILL ALL BE ATTACHED WITH THIS ASSIGNMENT. YOU WILL BUILD YOUR PAPER FROM THE READING AND PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU READ EVERYTHING ON THIS PAGE FROM TOP TO BOTTOME AND PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE READING THAT’S HIGHLIGHTED. THIS ASSIGNMENT WILL BE 2 PAGES USING TEXTBOOK AND OUTSIDE REFERENCES. I HAVE ALSO ATTACHED A SAMPLE PAPER FOR YOU TO ONLY LOOK AT NOT TO BE USED AT ALL. AND MAKE SURE THE PAPER IS PLAGARIZM FREE SO THAT WE DON’T HAVE THE ISSUE WE HAD FROM THE PASS WEEK. REMEMBER ALL MY WORK GOES THROUGH SAFEASSIGN. IF YOU SHOULD HAVE ANY QUESTION ABOUT THIS ASSIGNEMENT JUST PING ME AND I WILL ANSWER AS SOON AS I CAN THANKS….

Discussion: Typologies

Although typologies are widely used to create accurate profiles of violent offenders, especially serial and mass murderers, they usualIn the week two assignment, the typology discussed were organized nonsocial offender

and hedonistic. I chose the organized nonsocial offender for the case studies because of how the

murderer controlled the three crime scenes, the victim’s bodies were moved, and little evidence

was left at the crime scene. The behaviors of organized nonsocial offenders are believed to show

a level of premeditation and control. As a result, the crime scene will reflect a planned and

careful approach. The pristine crime scene is viewed as a result of the organized offender’s social

skills and ability to deal with interpersonal problems. The interactive crime scene displayed that

the murderer has a type of victim, and that’s female college students in their late teens to early

twenties. The murderer shows aggressive acts with the sexual assaults and manual strangulation

of the victims. The murderer also has a preferred location to dispose of the bodies, and that is the

river. Lust, thrill, and power/ control serial killers are the most likely kinds of serialists to dispose

of the bodies of their victims. The reasons they dispose of the bodies are varied, and whether the

killer intends for the body to be found can be a factor (Holmes and Holmes, 2009).

The other typology used to describe the murderer in the case study is hedonistic.

Hedonistic killer’s crimes are process-focused, generally taking some time to complete (Holmes

and Holmes, 2009). Sexual gratification or personal gain drives hedonistic serial killers. In the

case study, all three victims were tortured and sexually assaulted. Hedonistic killers thrive on

deviant behavior that enhances and creates sexual arousal through acts of violence and murder.

Apprehension of lust or thrill hedonistic serial murderers can be especially difficult if they are

geographically transient (Holmes and Holmes, 2009).

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Criminal profiling can give a visual of the suspect based on the physical and nonphysical

evidence of the crime scene and witness statements. Profiling can identify personality traits,

psychopathologies, behavior patterns, and demographic characteristics like age, race, and

geographic location, which can all be included in the description. Criminal profiling can help

narrow down the suspect list and implement techniques that are more likely to result in an arrest.

Profiling can also be helpful when there is little to no evidence at the crime scene; profiling can

help law enforcement find another resource or tool. The profile can be updated or expanded if

more murders occur or new information is discovered.

The limitation of criminal profiling is that it can lead to inaccurate profiles and cause the

criminal investigation to stall. Assuming specific predictions about oB E H A V I O R

5 Myths about Serial Killers and Why They Persist [Excerpt]
A criminologist contrasts the stories surrounding serial homicide with real data to help explain society’s

macabre fascination with these tales

Unlimited Knowledge Awaits. Subscribe

By Scott Bonn on October 24, 2014

Ted Bundy in court, January 1980. Credit: Getty Images

Excerpted with permission from Why We Love Serial Killers: The Curious Appeal of the
World’s Most Savage Murderers, by Scott Bonn. Skyhorse Publishing. Copyright © 2014.

Much of the general public’s knowledge concerning serial homicide is a product of

https://www.scientificamerican.com/behavior/

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https://www.scientificamerican.com/author/scott-bonn/

https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/theodore-bundy-watches-intently-during-the-third-day-of-news-photo/515117974

sensationalized and stereotypical depictions of it in the news and entertainment media.
Colorful story lines are written to pique the interest of audiences, not to paint an accurate
picture of serial murder.

By focusing on the larger-than-life media images of socially constructed “celebrity monsters,”
the public becomes captivated by the stylized presentation of the criminals rather than the
reality of their crimes. Media stereotypes and hyperbole create myths and great distortions in
the public consciousness regarding the true dynamics and patterns of serial murder in the
U.S.

The Reality of Serial Homicide in the U.S.
Serial killings account for no more than 1 percent of all murders committed in the U.S. Based
on recent FBI crime statistics, there are approximately 15,000 murders annually, so that

means there are no more than 150 victims of serial murder in the U.S. in any given year.1 The
FBI estimates that there are between twenty-five and fifty serial killers operating throughout
the U.S. at any given time.

If there are fifty, then each one is responsible for an average of three murders per year. Serial
killers are always present in society. However, the statistics reveal that serial homicide is
quite rare and it represents a small portion of all murders committed in the U.S.

Persistent misinformation, stereotypes and hyperbole presented in the media have combined
with the relative rarity of serial murder cases to foster a number of popular myths about
serial murder. The most common myths about serial killers encompass such factors as their
race, gender, intelligence, living conditions and victim characteristics.

Myth #1: All Serial Killers Are Men.
Reality: This is simply not true but it is understandable why the public would hold this
erroneous belief. As late as 19Behavioral Sciences and the Law

Behav. Sci. Law 22: 395–414 (2004)

Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bsl.595

Serial Murder in America: Case
Studies of Seven Offenders

James O. Beasley II, B.S., M.P.A.*

This article summarizes and compares information on

seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project

designed to study similarities and differences among

these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase

our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder

by examining the perpetrators’ backgrounds, as well as the

unique ways in which they view themselves and the world

around them. Although qualitative interview research

alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior,

it is useful in many ways. Some of the information

discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is

compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the

strengths and limitations of each type of research are

discussed. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The initial FBI study on sexual homicide and crime scene analysis, which included

interviews with 25 serial murderers by the Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) at the

FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia, was published nearly 20 years ago (The Men

Who Murdered, 1985). Since then, the phenomenon of serial murder has been

mythologized in popular culture, sensationalized by the media, and increasingly

scrutinized by academia. The results have been confounding, with fiction blurring

with fact, and assumptions and guesses often treated as certainty. Many of these

misperceptions are associated with the technique of profiling, which involves

assessment of crime scenes to construct a set of behavioral traits likely to be found

in a particular offender. Even today there is a common belief that profiling is an

almost mystical experience, and that it is always accurate and clear cut. However,

violent criminal behavior is extremely variable, making precise predictions proble-

matic. Some researchers have addressed the issue of predictability, among them

Farrington (1982); Goldberg (2000); Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990); and

Malmquist (1996).

Notwithstanding some acceptance of the notion of past violent behaviors being

predictive of future such behaviors (Samenow, 1998; Widom & Toch, 2000),

there exists an abundance of psychological theories about criminal behavior that

are varied and sometimes conflicting (Hall, 1999; Widom & Toch, 2000). As Fox

and Levin (2001) have warned, ‘‘correlation does not imply causation,’’ and

This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

*Correspondence to: James O. Beasley II, B.S., M.P.A., Supervisory Special Agent, National Center for
the Analysis of Violent Crime, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135, U.S.A.
E-mail: [email protected]

‘‘correlation also does not guarantee predictability’’ (pp. 26–28). Based partly on

these predictability issues, some academiCrime Scene 1
On the afternoon of June 14, 2008, a fisherman found the body of a female along the shore of a river. He
immediately called the police, and the dispatcher instructed the fisherman not to touch the body. Law
enforcement agents were at the crime scene within a few minutes.

Evidence:
Footprints:
There are two footprints near the body. This might be important evidence to link a suspect to the scene of
the crime. However, it is not beneficial to the profiler in the beginning stages of the investigation.

A woman’s purse:
There is a purse near the victim’s body. While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the
crime scene, it will not help the profiler create a profile of the murderer.

By examining the contents of the bag, investigators identified the victim as a 21-year-old white college
student. This might be important information in further investigations when meeting the victim’s friends,
classmates, and teachers and when trying to determine the motive for the murder. Also, the victim’s
driving license is missing. This evidence might not be important at this point but could be important later
in the investigation.

Body was moved:
It appears that the victim’s body was dragged into place. This is an important piece of information that
helps the profiler determine whether the murderer is an organized or disorganized offender.

Lacerations on the neck:
There are swollen marks around the victim’s neck, which indicates that the victim probably was strangled
to death, most likely with a belt. Although this evidence is important in identifying the cause of death,
missing this evidence would not be detrimental to the profile because an autopsy would reveal that the
cause of death was strangulation.

Sexual assault:
The victim was sexually assaulted. This is a critical piece of evidence for the profiler. Knowing that the
victim was sexually assaulted provides some insight about the type of murderer on the loose. Moreover,
knowing that the victim was sexually assaulted while alive, and not post-mortem, helps to determine the
typology of the murderer.

Belt near body:
While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the crime scene, it will not help the profiler create
a profile of the murderer.

Soda can near the body:
While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the crime scene, it will not help the profiler create
a profile of the murderer.

Body near a river:
The victim’s body was found near the river. This evidence might not be important at this point but could be
important later in the investigation.

Tire tracks:
There are tire tracks on the road near the victim. The tire tracks appear to be consistent with that of an old
pickup truck. While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the crime scene, it will not help the
profiler create a profile of the murderer.

You have collected all the evidence. Please proceed to the next crime scene.Crime Scene 2
During the early morning hours of September 12, 2008, an elderly couple taking a walk discovered what
seemed to be the body of a young female near the bank of a river. The man and woman walked back to
their car, drove to their house, and called the police. Investigators arrived at the crime scene around 10
a.m.

Evidence:
A woman’s purse:
There is a purse near the victim’s body, and by examining the contents of the bag, investigators identified
the victim was a 21-year-old black female college student. This might be important information in further
investigations when meeting the victim’s friends, classmates, and teachers and when trying to determine
the motive for the murder. Also, the victim’s driving license is missing. This evidence might not be
important at this point but could be important later in the investigation.

Body was moved:
The victim’s body was moved. This is an important piece of information that helps the profiler determine
whether the murderer is an organized or disorganized offender.

Lacerations on the neck:
There are swollen marks around the victim’s neck, which indicates that the victim probably was strangled
to death, most likely with a belt. Although this evidence is important in identifying the cause of death,
missing this evidence would not be detrimental to the profile because an autopsy would reveal that the
cause of death was strangulation.

Sexual assault:
The victim was sexually assaulted. This is a critical piece of evidence for the profiler. Knowing that the
victim was sexually assaulted provides some insight about the type of murderer on the loose. Moreover,
knowing that the victim was sexually assaulted while alive, and not post-mortem, helps to determine the
typology of the murderer.

Red bracelet found near the body:
While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the crime scene, it will not help the profiler create
a profile of the murderer.

Body near a river:
The victim’s body was found near the river. This evidence might not be important at this point but could be
important later in the investigation.

You have collected all the evidence. Please proceed to the next crime scene.Crime Scene 3
In the evening on November 12, 2008, a group of young boys playing near a river noticed what seemed
to be a mannequin. When the boys went to investigate, they realized that the mannequin actually was a
dead female. They ran to the home of one boy and told his parents what they discovered. His parents
called the police, who arrived on the scene 10 minutes later and quickly secured the crime scene to
preserve the evidence.

Evidence:
Foot prints:
There are two footprints near the body but they are badly smudged. This might be important evidence to
link a suspect to the scene of the crime. However, it is not beneficial to the profiler in the beginning stages
of the investigation.

A woman’s purse:
There is a purse near the victim’s body. While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the
crime scene, it will not help the profiler create a profile of the murderer.

By examining the contents of the bag, investigators identified the victim as a 20-year-old white college
student. This might be important information in further investigations when meeting the victim’s friends,
classmates, and teachers and when trying to determine the motive for the murder. Also, the victim’s
driving license is missing. This evidence might not be important at this point but could be important later
in the investigation.
.
Body was moved:
The victim’s body was moved. This is an important piece of information that helps the profiler determine
whether the murderer is an organized or disorganized offender.

Lacerations on the neck:
There are lacerations on the victim’s neck, which indicates that the victim probably was strangled to
death, most likely with a belt. Although this evidence is important in identifying the cause of death,
missing this evidence would not be detrimental to the profile because an autopsy would reveal that the
cause of death was strangulation.

Torture:
The victim has wounds on her body that are consistent with torture. This is an important piece of evidence
that could provide the profiler with some additional clues about the murderer.

Sexual assault:
The victim was sexually assaulted. This is a critical piece of evidence for the profiler. Knowing that the
victim was sexually assaulted provides some insight about the type of murderer on the loose. Moreover,
knowing that the victim was sexually assaulted while alive, and not post-mortem, helps to determine the
typology of the murderer.

A wooden board is near the body:
While this evidence might be useful in tying a suspect to the crime scene, it will not help the profiler create
a profile of the murderer.

Body near a river:
The victim’s body was found near the river. This evidence might not be important at this point but could be
important later in the investigation.

Congratulations! You have completed all of the scenes.Crime Scene Characteristics of the Disorganized serial killer

spontaneous offense

commits crime in a frenzy: sudden violence to the victim

crime scene is random and sloppy

minimal use of restraints

sexual acts after death

body left in view

evidence/weapon often present

weapon is usually a weapon of convenience

body left a death scene, usually in plain view

depersonalizes victim often disfigures the faces of his victims

overkill

The disorganized offender does not plan his attacks, if for no other reason than lack of ability to do so. He does not usually use restraints on the victim, mostly because the attacks are spontaneous and unplanned. Often this kind of offender finds victims in the area where both he and the victims live and work.

The disorganized offender often disfigures the faces of his victims. He also often mutilates victims’ bodies, removing sexual parts and taking these parts with him from the crime scene.

The crime is scene is random and sloppy with great disarray. The death scene and the crime scene are often the same. There is usually evidence of a blitz style of attack. Depersonalization may be present as evidence of the victim’s face being covered by a pillow or towels or by the body being simply rolled on the stomach. There is not set plan of action by the offender for deterring detection. The weapon is one of opportunity, obtained at the scene and left there. There is little or no effort to remove evidence. The body is left at the death scene, often in the position in which the victim was killed. There is no attempt to conceal the body.i

Serial Murder

Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives
for Investigators

Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime
Critical Incident Response Group
Federal Bureau of Investigation

ii

Editor

Robert J. Morton
Supervisory Special Agent
Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Contributors

Leonard G. Johns
Unit Chief
Behavioral Analysis Unit-3
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Timothy G. Keel
Major Case Specialist
Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Steven F. Malkiewicz
Supervisory Special Agent
Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
Federal Bureau of Investigation

James J. McNamara
Supervisory Special Agent
Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Kirk R. Mellecker
Major Case Specialist (Retired)
Behavioral Analysis Unit-2
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Co-Editor

Mark A. Hilts

Unit Chief

Behavioral Analysis Unit-2

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Mary Ellen O’Toole

Supervisory Special Agent

Behavioral Analysis Unit-2

Federal Bureau of Investigation

David T. Resch

Unit Chief

Behavioral Analysis Unit-1

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Mark Safarik

Supervisory Special Agent (Retired)

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Armin A. Showalter

Supervisory Special Agent

Behavioral Analysis Unit-2

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Rhonda L. Trahern

Supervisory Special Agent

Behavioral Analysis Unit-2

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,

Firearms and Explosives

iii

Table of Contents

Message from the Director……………………………………………………………………………..

Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………………………….

Foreword………………………………………………………………………………………………………

National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime…………………………………………..

I. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….

II. Definition of Serial Murder………………………………………………………………………

III. Causality and the Serial Murderer…………………………………………………………..

IV. Psychopathy and Serial Murder………………………………………………………………

V. Motivations and Types of Serial Murder:
The Symposium Model…………………………………………………………………………….

VI. Investigative Issues and Best Practices……………………………………………………

VII. Forensic Issues in Serial Murder Cases…………………………………………………..

VIII. Prosecution of Serial Murder Cases……………………………………………………….

IX. Media Issues in Serial Murder InvestigatioOverview of the Criminal-Profile-Generating Process

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) developed a criminal-profile-generating process to create the
profile of a murderer. This process consists of six main stages.

The six stages are:

1. Profiling Inputs
2. Decision Process Models
3. Crime Assessment
4. Criminal Profile
5. Investigation
6. Apprehension

Source: Douglas, J. E., Ressler, R. K., Burgess, A. W., & Hartman, C. R. (1986). Criminal profiling from
crime scene analysis. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 4(4), 401–421.

Stage 1: Profiling Inputs
The profiler gathers as much information from the crime scene as possible. For example, he or she
identifies the method used to murder the victim, the characteristics of the victim, and the appearance of
the crime scene. The only piece of information that the profiler does not include at this stage is a list of
possible subjects—the profiler needs to make sure the profile is as objective as possible and not tailored
to ―match‖ a particular person. The profiling inputs generally are gathered in the following categories:

The crime scene: Physical evidence, body position, and weapons found near the crime scene

Victimology: The victim’s family background, age, and occupation and the date and time the
victim was last seen alive

Forensic information: Reports (for example – autopsy, postmortem, and lab), the cause of
death, and wounds

The initial police report: Police observations, the time of the crime, the person who reported the
crime, and the neighborhood in which the crime occurred

Photographs: The crime scene and the victim

Stage 2: Decision Process Models
The profiler begins to organize the inputs gathered in stage 1 to try and make sense of the patterns of
evidence such as the time of the crime, the cause of death, and the victim’s characteristics. It is during
this stage that the profiler determines the type or style of the homicide and whether it appears to be the
work of the murderer responsible for some other murders.

Stage 3: Crime Assessment
The profiler tries to recreate the crime exactly as it occurred. This entails trying to identify the actions of
the victim, the actions of the murderer, and how the murder transpired. By recreating and assessing the
crime, the profiler begins to classify the type of murderer (for example, organized or disorganized).

Stage 4: Criminal Profile
The profiler creates a detailed profile of the murderer, including his or her possible age, gender, race, and
physical appearance. The profiler also tries to identify details about the murderer’s emotional and
psychological states, employment, and marital status.

Stage 5: Investigation
The profiler provides a written report to the law enforcement agency investigating the murder. The
investigators use the profile to help create a list of possible subjects. As new evidence becomes
available, the profile may be refined.




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