After learning about the High Middle Ages and the growth and progress of western society (Chapter 8 lecture), answer the following question. Follow the directions carefully in order to receive full credit. 
Chapter 8 Lecture Question:
In this lecture, we discussed the many positive developments that Europeans enjoyed beginning around 1000 CE. However, some historians have suggested that the crusades, far from being positive, were an immoral stain on the history of Western Civilization. Do you think that the crusades were generally positive or negative events in history?
Directions for Answering the Question:

Using information from the lecture, 

Explain what the crusades were

Offer a definition of the crusades (make sure to explain what they were in the Middle Ages)
Explain when the crusades started (you can state the exact date or the century) 

Identify and describe the three developments that contributed to the start of the crusades

Make sure to fully describe these developments. Don’t just list them.

State whether or not you believe the crusades were generally positive or negative events in history.
Use specific information and examples from the lecture to fully explain your position and ideas.

Important Rules for all Lecture Questions:

Only use information from the lecture to answer the question. These questions are intended to check that you watched and understood the lecture. If you use information from an outside source/s, your assignment will receive a zero.
Fully explain your statements and include specific examples from the lecture. 
Explain all information in your own words. Do not quote or copy and paste from the lecture or my powerpoint. Doing so will earn your assignment a zero.
Use good grammar, including complete sentences and correct punctuation. You may use bullet points, but the information you write out beside those bullet points should be complete sentences, not single words or sentence fragments.In my last lecture, we talked about the development of three civilizations that would come to
form the basis of medieval culture and eventually the modern world. I explained how
Charlemagne came to control most of the former barbarian lands of Western Europe and
succeeded in linking his empire both to the Roman Catholic Church and the former Roman
Empire. In this lecture, I want to look at what happened in Western Europe in the centuries
following Charlemagne. During this time, between the 10th and 12th centuries, Europeans
endured a range of experiences from anarchy created by new barbarians to great progress that led
to the rise cities, capitalism, and great power for the popes.
[SLIDE] Let’s start with our questions: We’re going to ask how manors and cities developed
between the 10th and 12th centuries, what three elements contributed to the start of the crusades at
the end of the 11th century, and how the popes gained power between the 11th and 13th centuries.
[SLIDE] Let’s return back to Charlemagne and the 9th century for just a moment. Now, even
though Charlemagne had been an excellent and skilled ruler, his sons and grandsons were not.
When Charlemagne died, his son Louis the Pious, divided the kingdom among three sons, who
were bad rulers. This division, and their inability to rule effectively, resulted in the disintegration
of Charlemagne’s empire and the end of the Carolingian dynasty. In fact, the very names of the
later Carolingian rulers give a clue to the emperor’s decline. A few of these rulers were named
Charles the Bold, Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple. [SLIDE] In addition to bad rulers,
however, the power of the Carolingian kings also declined because of the invasion of the new
barbarian group. The Vikings.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, new polytheistic barbarian groups raided the Christian heart of
Europe. All of these different polytheistic barbarians, the most important were the Vikings. The
Vikings were from the Scandinavian region. They were a warrior people, and superb
shipbuilders and sailors. [SLIDE] Viking ships were the best at the time. They were long and
narrow with beautifully carved arched prows that were often decorated in the shape of dragons.
These ships could carry about 50 men. They had oars as well as of a single great sail. And the
shape of these ships meant that they were not only going for the open sea, but they could also go
up rivers. [SLIDE] This allowed the Vikings to attack towns and cities on the shore as well as
inland. Viking raids became regular and really devastating in Europe in the 9th century. Viking
sacked villages, towns, destroyed churches, and easily defeated small local armies. Vikings
attacked and took over places in Ireland and England. The area of Belgium, Germany and
France, and even in Northwestern Russia. They made contact with the Byzantine Empire and
Islamic civilization both as traders and invaders. The Vikings were daring explorers. [S




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