Please read the following Harvard Business Review short Best Practices articles related to Virtual – Remote – Telecommuting Teams and please write two or three short paragraphs for EACH reading with an insightful and critical thinking reference related to Virtual – Remote – Telecommuting Teams.
I expect high caliber Quality Harvard Business Review Virtual Teams Best Practices Canvas Postings with top analyses and interesting insights!!LEADING TEAMS

A First-Time Manager’s
Guide to Leading Virtual
Teams
by Mark Mortensen
SEPTEMBER 25, 2015

In the past, new managers often had the luxury of cutting their teeth on traditional collocated teams:
groups of people, sitting down the hall from one another, who met up in conference rooms to hash
out what they were trying to achieve and how to get there. Unfortunately, today’s increasingly global
work environment does not always afford that luxury. Many first-time managers find themselves
assigned to a team of subordinates scattered far and wide.

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Managing a distributed team can feel overwhelming as it requires you to navigate many different
types of distance: geographic, temporal, cultural, linguistic, and configurational (the relative number
of members in each location). Every one of these dimensions affects team dynamics and, therefore,
has an impact on effectiveness and performance as well. Daunting as that may seem, there is good
news in the form of a large and ever-increasing body of research and best practices on how to
increase your odds of success. But first, it’s important to understand which aspects of team dynamics
are, and are not, affected by distance.

The effects of distance
While all of the different types of distance listed above affect us, they do so primarily through two
core mechanisms: shared identity and shared context. Understanding these will help you develop a
much more targeted plan of attack for managing from afar.

First, distance affects how you feel about people. Dealing with the types of distance listed above
(often grouped together and labeled “locational”) triggers a sense of “social distance” – an unshared
sense of identity, or a feeling of “us vs. them.” A lack of a shared identity has a far stronger impact on
team dynamics than any of the types of distance individually. In an experimental field study I
conducted with Michael O’Leary, for example, we showed that unshared identity arising from social
distance increased coordination problems and reduced group cognition in the form of transactive
memory. When teams function with high levels of transactive memory, they know where different
knowledge is held in the team and how to access it. For instance, if everyone knows that Hector is a
talented forecaster, the team will save time by assuming that Hector is responsible for any new
information regarding forecasting. When transactive memory is impaired, however, the efficiency of
the group suffers.

Similarly, a study conducted with Pamela Hind found that this sense of us-vs.-them significantly
increased levels of conflict within the global R&D teams of a Fortune 500 petroleum firm (in fact, a
top five Fortune 500 company).

Second, distance affects what you know about people. Catherine Cramton refers to this concept as
“the mutual knowledge problem,” but put simply, it means that you don’t know what they know –
and COMMUNICATION

How Managers Can
Support Remote
Employees
by Sabina Nawaz
APRIL 01, 2020

PETER FINCH/GETTY IMAGES

We’ve made our coronavirus coverage free for all readers. To get all of HBR’s content delivered to
your inbox, sign up for the Daily Alert newsletter.

In the global transition from corporate hallways to home offices, we’ve left something behind:
meaningful access to managers. Gone are the instant answers to unblock progress, information
streams that managers are privy to before the rest of the organization, informal feedback and

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coaching while walking together after a meeting, and predictable process and structures for
communicating about work and ensuring mutual accountability.

Last week, during a coaching call, a senior director lamented, “I’m stalled because I don’t know how
to connect with my manager on the less formal stuff — the way I used to.” He’s not alone. Manager
distancing is frustrating employees and stalling work.

But managers are finding themselves struggling, too. For every employee who is trying to reach their
manager, a manager is attempting to connect with half a dozen or more direct reports, plus trying to
get direction from their own boss. In a poll of my coaching clients last week about their biggest
challenges, their key themes were about how to stay connected with each team member, help
manage their own and others’ stress, maintain team morale and motivation, run engaged meetings,
track and communicate progress, and help their team shed nonessential work.

My coaching clients — managers in a variety of organizations — and I have worked through several
scenarios and arrived at these six strategies to augment availability to employees when working
remotely. We’re seeing early indications that implementing these strategies can reduce manager and
employee stress, address concerns about employee work progress, increase productivity for them
and their teams, and restore and maintain healthy communication channels.

Bridge distance through frequent connections.
Yuval*, CEO of a 1,000-person high-tech company, messages or calls his direct reports at least once a
day, usually without a specific agenda. He says things like, “Checking to see if you need anything
from me,” “What questions do you have for me today?” “Just learned about X and want you to be the
first to know,” and “Thinking of you; reminded of our winter team outing and your killer s’mores as I
look at the picture on my home office wall.” Instead of simply asking his direct reports to get in touch
with him as needed, Yuval proactively manages the frequency of connection. This way, he always has
a finger on the pulse of his team, especially those directs hesitant to reach out and add




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