Label each entry as you do them whether it’s the title or numbers.
Take a look at the requirements and example below and what’s attached.
What’s required?
Three learning journal entries per week (described below). At least one journal entry per week must address our semester reading, Our Own Worst Enemy, and other readings related to our special focus this semester: threats to US democracy and ways those threats can be mitigated.
Read the prompt details below and reach out if any questions. You aren’t graded on your political views. You are graded on whether you support your views with credible sources and evidence. Credible sources do not include opinionated commentators like Tucker Carlson or Michael Moore. They can be fun to listen to but are not college assignment sources. So too social media memes and conspiracy theories. I’m not joking. People have cited them. Provide evidence and citations to back up your claims to help others fairly evaluate your arguments. Anyone should be able to go to the materials you relied on upon and see for themselves to confirm, disconfirm or challenge your reading of that material. Then, and only then, can a free and open, and INFORMED discussion take place. No one is limiting your right to free speech by asking you to back up your claims, for additional evidence, or questioning the credibility of your sources.
Avoid logical fallacies
You’ll also find common logical fallacies (aka BS arguments) defined on the second part of this page. Once again, use it as a checklist and make sure you are making the best possible case for your point of view in your journals. 
Questions to address for each idea in a learning journal
Once you have your three ideas (plus one optional extra credit idea)  for the week answer the following four questions for each idea:
1) What was the one idea that struck you and why?
2) How does it connect to what you are learning about in class?
What does this mean? Step 1: As you read each section introduction and each page keep notes on the main idea- something that can be written in a sentence or a short phrase. Step 2: What is the main idea of both the module and the section on your topic page is located in? Step 3: What is the main idea you are writing or about or addressing in your journal entry? Step 4: Go back to your notes. What are the other main ideas from this section or module? Step 5: What main idea is your topic an example of? How does it compare to the other main idea(s)? How is it the same? How is it different? Your answer to Step 5 is your answer to question 2 on how your journal entry connects to what you learning in class.
3) How did it expand your understanding?
4) What would you like to learn more about?
Here are the journal entries
#1: Video: The Story of Citizens United v. FEC
The Story of Citizens United v. FEC – YouTube 
#2: Play for Pay (see attachment below) 
#3: Republicans, Democrats and Populism (see attachment below)Play for Pay?
This fascinating article from Bloomberg News cites a survey that shows that business people of both parties would support campaign finance reform. The results here are counterintuitive as the popular assumption is that business people prefer money in politics as usual because of the favors that can result.
Business Executives Call Political Giving ‘Pay to Play’
By Julie Bykowicz – Jul 24, 2013 3:42 PM MT
Top U.S. business executives say major political contributors such as themselves wield too much political influence.
A new poll of company leaders shows that 75 percent of them regard political giving as “pay-to-play,” and even more said they would like the campaign-finance system vastly improved or completely rewritten.
“There’s an impression that there is money being used to buy politicians, and that therefore they are not beholden to the electorate but to donors,” said Steve Odland, president and chief executive officer of the Committee for Economic Development and a former CEO of 

Office Depot Inc. (ODP)
Links to an external site.

The committee’s online survey of 302 executives was conducted May 29 to June 3 jointly by Democratic polling firm Hart Research and Republican pollster American Viewpoint. The Committee for Economic Development, a nonprofit business policy group based in Washington, released the survey today as part of its 

push for more disclosure
Links to an external site.
 in campaign finance.

Chamber Objection

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce objected to the survey’s findings, sending a lawyer to the Committee for Economic Development’s event today at the National Press Club in Washington. The business trade group criticized the poll as unscientific and agenda-driven, invoking the name of a billionaire Democratic donor whose nonprofit Open Society Institute has provided funding for CED programs.
“This survey is not representative of the business community and given that 

George Soros
Links to an external site.
 is contributing to the organization conducting it, the results should not be surprising,” said Blair Latoff Holmes, a Chamber spokeswoman, in an e-mailed statement. “The Chamber and its members understand that the real goal of the so-called disclosure push is to limit or remove altogether the business voice from the political and policymaking process.”

CED’s survey of executives was funded by the Omidyar Network Fund Inc., a nonprofit established by EBay Inc. co-founder Pierre Omidyar and his wife.

2012 Money

Trade groups such as the Chamber are among those that the CED says are responsible for obscuring money in politics. Together with unions and nonprofits, groups that don’t disclose their donors invested more than $335 million in the 2012 federal elections, according to the Washington-based Center for Responsive Politics.
The survey of executives found that 86 percent said transparency in the campaign-finance system isn’t adequate. Accompanying Republicans, Democrats and Populism
Many have commented that Donald Trump ran and governed as a populist. But Harvard’s Bonikowski and Gidron note that populism is a campaign style with common themes which historically has been deployed by Democrats and Republicans.
As a refresher we have defined 
Populism is a political style that divides everyday citizens from elites and foments anger against elites and social outgroups that are said to be keeping ordinary people from their good life. Populists then leverage that anger to gain political power. Populists often don’t have a coherent ideology, be it conservative or liberal because they are focusing preexisting citizen anger and wanting to do what’s popular.

Populism comes in different varieties. Soft populism  would be promoting an economic plan, for example, while saying it will “help  Main Street, not Wall Street.” Hard populism would be something like the Jan. 6, 2021 attack on the capitol and attempts to overthrow the results of the 2020 the election. In its hard forms populism can embrace conspiracy theories, favor ineffective leaders who are about style, swagger, and atmospherics (Nichols 2021), and who challenge democratic institutions. In it’s extreme form it can also increase the likelihood of political violence.
Harvard’s Bonikowski and Gidron (1994)  note that both soft and hard populism traditionally  fueled outsider candidates. Why? An outsider has more credibility to argue for change. Interestingly, in 2020, Trump ran a populist campaign as an incumbent with a record to defend. I excerpt sections of their article below that seemed most relevant to our recent elections. You can 

read the full article here.
 Note that they suggest that populist themes may boost voters self-image, conferring a sense of moral superiority. (For those wanting a  deeper dive Block and Negrine (2017) further explore 

the populist communication style and political identity here
 comparing Trump with the late Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez and British BREXIT leader Nigel Farge. They argue that populist politicians connect with aggrieved citizens through cheeky or abrasive communication styles. That boosts the morale of supporters via non-traditional media and raises emotions against out-groups (and the mainstream media) as the source the aggrieved citizens’ problems.)

Bonikowski and Gidron write, “Within this tradition, populism is predicated on a moral opposition between the people, who are viewed as the only legitimate source of political power, and the elites, whose interests are perceived as inherently contrary to those of the populace. The specific elites targeted by populist claims can vary, from elected politicians and business leaders to intellectuals, but they are invariably portrayed as having betrayed the public trust. In the case of elected officials, a common accusation is that instead of representing the electorate, they serve special interesThose 3 journal entries are a minimum of 250 words for each idea
reflection per idea reflection. You can go longer on text or video if needed.
If you are doing text it would run about 2000 words for the three weeks of
reflections and about 2750 words in the final journal which will cover four

The format is your choice depending on your comfort level with technology
and what you feel best fits your topic and creative inspiration. It could be a
written Word doc. It could be a video. You could include your own creative
work such as photographs, memes, graphics, artwork, poems, songs,
graphs, diagrams, and tables. You can also use PowerPoint (link from
Google Drive in your assignment post), Prezi, or an audio file. Include links
to what is being discussed in your reflections when its from something
other than our course. If you are using video and it is a file smaller than 500
mb you can upload it directly to Canvas.

This can be a painless and enjoyable learning process if you do it regularly.
If an idea grabs you as you are reading the Canvas site or the Our Own
Worst Enemy book, do a short write-up. If you wait until a day before it’s
due, or worse, the day of, it will be unpleasant.

Credible sources are a must

As you analyze the different ideas, your evaluation of the pluses and
minuses of each idea is up to you. You will not be graded or judged
on your beliefs and values. This course is about reflecting on critical
political questions and issues and learning how to think, not what to
think. You are required to include citations and supporting evidence
for all your views. See the next page for definitions of credible
sources. Use it as a checklist. If it meets all the criteria use the
source. If it doesn’t meet all criteria don’t use it. You are responsible
for vetting your sources before using them in this course!

How to Get a Better Grade on an
To improve your grade on assignments use the following list of things to do
and things to avoid. Use it as a checklist as you edit your assignment. The
more checks the better your grade will be.

Above all remember as you analyze different perspectives, your
evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of any political
position is up to you. You will not be graded or judged on your beliefs
and values. This course is about teaching you HOW to think, not
WHAT to think. I do not care if you are Republican, Democrat, Right or
Left or none of the above. What is important is to make the best
possible argument you can for your position. The tips on this page
will help you do just that. It begins with the six most common
mistakes that I’ve seen in assignments.

A) The Big Six:

1: Thoroughly read through the assignment prompt

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