due in 48 hours
attachedWeek 13 Assignment 2: DISCUSSION

What political gains have been achieved by African Americans? What areas do African Americans still need addressed and how do you think that can be done? Your responses must be no less than 200 words. Respond to at least two (2) of your classmates in no less than 100 words.
What political gains have been achieved by African Americans? What areas do African Americans still need addressed and how do you think that can be done?
Political gains that have been achieved by African Americans today are many, but they are still not enough. We made our greatest achievement when we elected our first African American President Barack Obama to the highest office in the land. Our second greatest achievement our current first African American woman Vice President Kamala Harris to the second highest office in the land. African Americans have made other great achievements. President Biden appointed Lloyd Austin our first black secretary of defense. Biden also appointed Marcia Fudge our first black woman secretary of housing and urban Development. The latest great achievement is our first African American woman appointed to the United States Supreme Court, Justice Katanji Brown Jackson. The areas of political gains that need to be addressed are the first African American Congress and House Speaker also black female governors. Other areas of interest for African Americans that still need to be addressed are sports team.  I think the areas of African Americans that still need to be addressed can be done by not blocking but allowing African Americans a fair chance to become head coaches, managers, and owners.

What political gains have been achieved by African Americans? What areas do African Americans still need addressed and how do you think that can be done?
The political gain that African American the number of representatives has increase yearly. In the nineteenth century we had our first African American president and twelve years later we made history once again the first African American woman as vice president of the United States. We have come together to make history and change what others thought we would not happen.   The areas that need to be address for African Americans is how we view ourselves and one another. When we begin to value the lives of our brothers and sister, we can make a difference. We come together when others come against us and take our life, but what about when we are the one doing the killing. When we get in office, we forget about where we come from and who help put us there. I believe we will be able to get more African Americans in office and even as governor, if we continue to pull together and do what is right. The more we vote the more our voices can be heard, we are strong in numbers especially in unity. 

Week 13 Assignment 3: Short Essay
Suggest ways in which racial prejudice can be eradicated in America.

I. Read American religious landscape Social Philosophy

Dr Joanne Harmon

Acknowledgements to Dr Wendy Bastalich

Outline social philosophy in the social sciences and

▪ Introduction

▪ What is social philosophy?

▪ Approaches

▪ Reference list

Dr Wendy Bastalich, http://people.unisa.edu.au/Wendy.Bastalich research education
advisor, research and innovation services




Presented here is a short introductory summary of the course content from RESA online,
social philosophy for business, social sciences and humanities.

This series of web resources introduces a range of philosophical perspectives that inform
different approaches to research and scholarship in the social sciences, business and

The site link is NC0030 https://lo.unisa.edu.au/course/view.php?id=6745

Please forward any questions or suggestions to [email protected]


mailto:[email protected]

What is social philosophy?

What are the criteria of a good social explanation?

How (if at all) are the social sciences distinct from the natural sciences?

Is there a distinctive method for social research?

Through what empirical procedures are social science assertions to be evaluated?

Are there irreducible social laws?

Are there causal relations among social phenomena?

Do social facts and regularities require some form of reduction to facts about individuals?

What is the role of theory in social explanation? (the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy 1999).

The so what…?

Researchers produce knowledge, and in doing so, they make assumptions about what can be
investigated (ontology) and how we come to know about the world (epistemology)

Philosophical assumptions about what it is proper for a researcher to study and where certain
knowledge comes from are contested, especially within, and across social sciences and humanities

This means that any one approach can be, and frequently is challenged from other points of view

Understanding the possible range of philosophical assumptions that underpin knowledge making
practices helps researchers to articulate their methodological assumptions, as well as to understand
the perspectives of those coming from different points of view

Approaches in social philosophy

❖ Positivism and classical social theory

❖ Realism and empiricism

❖ Interpretivism, social constructionism and phenomenology

❖ Hermeneutics

❖ Critical approaches e.g. critical theory

❖ Structuralism

❖ Derridean deconstruction

❖ Foucaultian genealogy

❖ Post colonial theory

❖ Post structuralist feminisms


The subject matter of scientific research and scientific theory exist independently of our
knowledge of them

There are knowable, mind-independent facts, objects, or properties

Real structures or mechanisms exist independently oApproaches to Social Philosophy

S. Lourdunathan

1. Positivists Approach

True or False Analysis – Quantification leads to the understanding of the Social &


2. Phenomenological Approach – hermeneutical phenomenology

 Experience, and the meaning attributed to experience, are not immediately

observable and accessible to a true/false analysis and therefore lie outside the

boundaries of a positivist framework.

2.1: Husserl: Epistemological Approach Go-beyond the naturalistic

observation/positivistic mood, (transcended the distortions of history, culture and

society) (bracket them out) (‘intentionality’, ‘noesis’ and ‘noema’) and ‘see’ the

‘intersubjective natural world-about-me, with sense-things.

2.2. Heidegger: (Ontological Approach) – the question of Being transcending the

Representational and Calculative modes of being – as Dasein – identified with a

sense of transcendence and interpretativeness. De-to be Sein- being. Heidegger,

Being-in-the-world was always a Being-with-others-in-the world and meaning was

necessarily developed within a relationship or a community.

e.g. Caste Marriage – Economic Analysis – Standard of Money that is spent for

hospitality, say 50 lakhs. Need to go beyond ‘caste intersubjectivity’ towards the


3. Late Modern Orientations to Social Philosophy

3.1. Khunn: Falisficationism

3.2. Science as cultural and hence the ‘cultural’ has to be approached

interpretatively – Lyotard

4. What is Socio-Philosophical Approaches in India:

4.1. Return to the Past

4.2. Renew the Present

4.3. Radically interrogate the Past, Present towards the Future.


 Madura College, UGC Seminar on Trends in Social Philosophy, 12-13, March 2013. [email protected]Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2847526

The Necessity of Social Philosophy
Nathan J. Robinson
Harvard University

Due to the way academic disciplines are structured, many important normative
social questions are not discussed with the scholarly rigor that they deserve. While mor-
al questions concerning individual ethics and state policymaking have developed an
extensive philosophical literature, moral questions about social life more broadly (such
as those that arise in schools, families, workplaces, and communities) are frequently
left untouched by those who study these domains empirically.

This may partly be due to the commitment of social scientists to a position of neu-
trality on moral questions. Social science has attempted to remain agnostic on what
people ought to do, preferring to analyze what they do in fact do. However, as critics
of social science have pointed out, moral assumptions pervade sociology, anthropology,
political science, and economics. The “scientific” mindset has not produced a value-free
approach to studying social questions. Instead, it has simply forced the normative
beliefs underlying empirical research to go undiscussed. It has also meant that “ought”
questions, which are extensively treated in policy, business, and ethics literature, are
addressed tacitly, but unsystematically and often incoherently. Yet just as political phi-
losophy and ethics are important for developing clear frameworks for deliberation
about how states and individuals should act, “social philosophy” can help in both
developing useful concepts to guide social organization.

By conceiving of social philosophy as an important complement to social science,
scholars can solve several problems. First, by moving values discussions to their own
realm, they address the perennially disquieting problem of how to produce socially
relevant knowledge without sacrificing a commitment to empirical neutrality. Second,
by subjecting the values underlying social science to systematic scrutiny, scholars will
ensure that unexamined political ideologies do not pervade social scientific disciplines.
Finally, by paying attention to the role of “ought” questions in social inquiry, scholars
can offer important new contributions to real-world social decision-making.

Social philosophy is not only useful, it is unavoidable, and ignoring it will under-
mine both the intellectual credibility and practical relevance of the social sciences.


t is impossible for anyone to escape from moral values. Everyone inhabits a social context, and in doing
so internalizes a set of normative beliefs about what people ought to do and how things ought to be. If

a person refuses to acknowledge that she holds such beliefs, she does not thereby shed them and achieve
some kind of objectivity or neutrality. Rather, she simply proceeds in accordance with her unstated moral
assumptions, without stopping to ask why she believes the– 1104 –

Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2014 7) 1104-1111
~ ~ ~

УДК 316.4:141.201

Perspectives of Social Philosophy

Vyacheslav E. Kemerov*
Ural Federal University named after the B. N. Yeltsin

51 Lenin, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russia

Received 19.01.2014, received in revised form 28.01.2014, accepted 15.04.2014

Understanding of the problems and perspectives of the Russian society does not fit into the traditional
philosophical forms. The Russian culture confronts the task of constructing a social philosophy of a
new type. This is what is discussed in this article.

Keywords: social philosophy, sociology, social knowledge, philosophical tradition, social

© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
* Corresponding author E-mail address: [email protected]

Russian philosophy has always stressed its
humanitarian orientation. However its concepts
of humanism have always remained extremely
vague. That is why its himanitarian orientation
was also indistinct, and quite often just illusory.

In a post-perestroyka peroid Russian
philosophy (and social philosophy in particular)
cannot ant longer remain on a level of indistinct
humanitarian concepts, humanistic slogans and
myths. It is necessary to draw the ideas of man
and people as close as possible to the reality of
human relationships and social forms taking
shape in these relationships.

However this is a very complicated task to a
number of reasons.

The first of them – not in importance, but in
order – is that the concept of sociality in general
and of social philosophy in particular turns out
to be ambiguous. Moreover in the process of a
consistent analysis it proves both on a common-
sense and on a theoretical level to be alien, even
the opposite to the notions of humanitarianism,

individualism, personality, etc. Thus the concept
of sociality appears rather not a means of
concretization of the understanding of people, but
an obstacle on this path.

There is only a seeming paradox in
this situation. Behind the strange logics of
the concepts there is real Russian history,
in particular the history of the last seventy
years, when the social forms were not only
alienated from the living human individuals,
but this quasiindependence of them was in
itself interpreted as an expression of the unity
of individual and group interests, as the focal
point of the values of a just society.

Social philosophy must show society its
reality, offer the people perspectives of activity.
But to fulfil its duty it has to rethink the соnсept
of social ity, till it with the Individuals human
meaning. And this means it has to rethink its
own social ity itself in the first place.

Let us pose a question: a non-social
philosophy at all possible?

– 1105 –

Vyacheslav E. Kemerov. Perspectives of Social Philosophy

Of course, nowadays the majority of
philosophic teachings do talk of man and the
being of man in soBlackness and Blood: Interpreting African American Identity
Author(s): Lionel K. McPherson and Tommie Shelby
Source: Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring, 2004), pp. 171-192
Published by: Blackwell Publishing
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3557949
Accessed: 11/08/2010 23:59

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LIONEL K. McPHERSON Blackness and Blood:

Interpreting African
American Identity

In his Tanner Lectures, “The State and the Shaping of Identity,” Kwame

Anthony Appiah defends a version of liberalism that would give the
state a substantial role in deliberately sustaining, reshaping, and even

creating the social identities of its citizens-our identities as African

American, women, Hispanic, gay, Jewish, and the like.’ He calls this
role “soul-making,” which is “the political project of intervening in
the process of interpretation through which each citizen develops an

identity with the aim of increasing her chances of living an ethically
successful life.”2

Appiah believes that an ethically successful life is integral to an objec-
tively good life. “A life has gone well,” he tells us, “if a person has mostly
done for others what she owed them (and thus is morally successful) and
has succeeded in creating things of significance and in fulfilling her
ambitions (and is thus ethically successful).”3 He supports a liberal
democratic, soul-making state that not only would seek to protect
persons from harming themselves but also would seek to promote for
citizens the kinds of lives that are good or valuablGerry Stahl’s assembled texts volume #7

Essays in

Gerry Stahl

Essays in Social Philosophy


Gerry Stahl’s Assembled Texts

• Marx and Heidegger

• Tacit and Explicit Understanding in Computer Support

• Group Cognition: Computer Support for Building Collaborative

• Studying Virtual Math Teams

• Translating Euclid: Designing a Human-Centered Mathematics.

• Constructing Dynamic Triangles Together: The Development of
Mathematical Group Cognition

• Essays in Social Philosophy

• Essays in Personalizable Software

• Essays in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

• Essays in Group-Cognitive Science

• Essays in Philosophy of Group Cognition

• Essays in Online Mathematics Interaction

• Essays in Collaborative Dynamic Geometry

• Adventures in Dynamic Geometry

• Global Introduction to CSCL

• Editorial Introductions to ijCSCL

• Proposals for Research

• Overview and Autobiographical Essays

• Theoretical Investigations

• Works of 3-D Form

Essays in Social Philosophy


Gerry Stahl’s assembled texts volume #7

Essays in

Gerry Stahl

Essays in Social Philosophy


Gerry Stahl

[email protected]


Copyright © 2010, 2020 by Gerry Stahl

Published by Gerry Stahl at Lulu.com

Printed in the USA

ISBN: 978-1-329-85906-7 (paperback)

ISBN: 978-1-329-85897-8 (ebook)

Essays in Social Philosophy



o publish one’s notes under the banner of “philosophy” requires one to
adopt a balancing measure of modesty. The term “philosophy” itself has
been kept on a pedestal for centuries. If it was ever attainable, it probably

is not any longer. Even Heidegger, who was arguably the last great philosopher,
once said he was only “aiming toward a star, nothing more.” He proclaimed that
philosophy had come to its end with Nietzsche, who himself strayed from the
academy and struggled to enter the mundane world. Certainly with Marx, the
pursuit of philosophical issues led to empirical research in the sciences.

Looking over the essays gathered in this volume, it is particularly clear that my
philosophic writings are student efforts. If I have approached philosophical
insights, it has been in my writings within the disciplines of computer sciences,
cognitive sciences, learning sciences and information sciences. As I have studied
and worked in these fields, I have been guided and urged on by my philosophy
studies. While I do not feel that I have yet articulated the philosophic perspective
that has driven my research situated in disciplinary practices, I know that what I
have had to say has been thoroughly colored and even shaped by that perspective.

My academic study falls into three distinct periods, and the writings in this
collection have been grouped accordingly. The first period was my
undergraduate years at MIT from 1963-1967. Representing this per

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