Question 1Which of the following is an example of a testable research question?Why are leaves green?What methods can doctors develop to cure a cold or other viral illnesses?Are children who live close to electrical power lines more likely to develop cancer?What factors cause heart disease?Question 2A chemistry researcher at the University of Iowa was investigating variations in the density of silicon at different temperatures.  Unfortunately, the researcher failed to calibrate the laboratory instrument used to make measurements in his experiment, resulting in the same error in density measurement at every temperature tested.  This is an example of which type of error? systematic errorrandom errorType I errorType II errorQuestion 3A handout distributed on the first day of class describes the difference between applied and basic (pure or theoretical) research.  Which of the following is an example of basic research?investigation of the relationship between cholesterol in the diet and heart disease in middle-aged womenstudies to develop improvements in the design of fiber-optic cables used for telecommunicationsthe development of a vaccine for Ebolaa study of the existence of black holes in the Universe Question 4Write a few sentences below to explain your current understanding of the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.Question 5Please read the Abstract (pg. 2326) and the Introduction (the first 4 paragraphs on page 2327) of the Senn et al. article “Efficacy of a Sexual Assault Resistance Program for University Women” before answering the questions below. Senn_NEJM_2015.pdf Before scientists develop a hypothesis to guide their research, they make observations about phenomena and develop testable research questions.  A hypothesis is a declarative statement that attempts to predict the relationship between two or more variables.a.) In the Senn et al. article what research question do you think was the basis for this study?b.) What is the hypothesis that was tested in this study?The
n e w e ng l a n d j o u r na l
of
m e dic i n e
Special Article
Efficacy of a Sexual Assault Resistance
Program for University Women
Charlene Y. Senn, Ph.D., Misha Eliasziw, Ph.D., Paula C. Barata, Ph.D.,
Wilfreda E. Thurston, Ph.D., Ian R. Newby‑Clark, Ph.D., H. Lorraine Radtke, Ph.D.,
and Karen L. Hobden, Ph.D.​
A BS T R AC T
BACKGROUND
From the Department of Psychology and
Women’s and Gender Studies Program,
University of Windsor, Windsor, ON
(C.Y.S., K.L.H.), the Departments of Community Health Sciences (M.E., W.E.T.),
Ecosystem and Public Health (W.E.T.),
and Psychology (H.L.R.), University of
Calgary, Calgary, AB, and the Department
of Psychology, University of Guelph,
Guelph, ON (P.C.B., I.R.N.-C.) — all in
Canada; and the Department of Public
Health and Community Medicine, Tufts
University, Boston (M.E.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Senn at the Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B
3P4, Canada, or at ­csenn@​­uwindsor​.­ca.
N Engl J Med 2015;372:2326-35.
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1411131
Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Young women attending university are at substantial risk for being sexually assaulted, primarily by male acquaintances, but effective strategies to reduce this
risk remain elusive.
METHODS
We randomly assigned first-year female students at three universities in Canada to
the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act Sexual Assault Resistance program (resistance group) or to a session providing access to brochures on sexual assault, as was
common university practice (control group). The resistance program consists of
four 3-hour units in which information is provided and skills are taught and practiced, with the goal of being able to assess risk from acquaintances, overcome
emotional barriers in acknowledging danger, and engage in effective verbal and
physical self-defense. The primary outcome was completed rape, as measured by the
Sexual Experiences Survey–Short Form Victimization, during 1 year of follow-up.
RESULTS
A total of 451 women were assigned to the resistance group and 442 women to
the control group. Of the women assigned to the resistance group, 91% attended
at least three of the four units. The 1-year risk of completed rape was significantly lower in the resistance group than in the control group (5.2% vs. 9.8%;
relative risk reduction, 46.3% [95% confidence interval, 6.8 to 69.1]; P = 0.02). The
1-year risk of attempted rape was also significantly lower in the resistance group
(3.4% vs. 9.3%, P
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